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The Known Advantages of "Hybrid Breeding"
(And Why It's Illegal to Marry Your Sister... Even if She's Really Pretty)
A dog breeder's treatise in opposition to commonly promoted dog breeding practices

Daniel Blasco, Blasco Family Bulldogs©
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Prologue

Writing this article is a bit intimidating to me. I'm going to write some things which I believe folks not associated with dogs professionally have a right to know. At the same time, however, there are other professional dog people who shall most likely become irritated. I wish that this were not the case, and I truly mean no offense. Please do be advised, however, that in castigating the dog breeding industry, I will at least not do so based solely on my own opinions. The more research oriented reader will find a complete bibliography at the bottom of the page. You will also find many example photos along the way. So, understand that I am not asking you to "take my word for it," but am merely presenting facts and evidence that demands the reader's own verdict.

Thesis With Initial Supports

There are two statements I wish to prove to you through this article: 1) Purebred dogs are typically inferior to mixed breed dogs. 2) The breeding practices generally promoted by popular breeders' organizations, such as the AKC and others, are inferior practices which have led to, and continue to result in, the destruction of otherwise fine breeds of dogs.

I'll begin making my case with, as promised, much more expert opinions than my own...

In general, crossbreed dogs "have a far lower chance of exhibiting the disorders that are common with the parental breeds. Their genetic health will be substantially higher."(1)

Jon Mooallem in the New York Times wrote, "Given the roughly 350 inherited disorders littering the dog genome, crossing two purebreds and expanding their gene pools can be “a phenomenally good idea,” according to one canine geneticist — if it is done conscientiously."(2)

Hybrid dogs created by breeding two purebred dogs of different breeds, demonstrate heterosis, or hybrid vigor. The best way to continue taking advantage of hybrid vigor is from the breeding of dogs with genetic diversity.(3)

Introductory Arguments With Initial Examples

Clearly, if you are a breeder or associated with dog breeding professionally this flies in the face of the recommended breeding practices of most well known canine associations which primarily promote in-line breeding, the practice of repeatedly breeding related dogs. Show dog breeding seeks aestetic consistency, essentially replicating the same dogs by breeding cousins together in an ever dwindling gene pool. In such breeding, the breeder is specifically seeking to minimize genetic diversity, striving to breed dogs that look as much alike as possible. Worse yet, when we breed for one or two specific physical characteristics, seeking to refine and re-refine its subtle nuances, we tend to lose track of what the rest of the dog is doing and end up with a mess.

American Bulldogs

Neapolitan Mastiff, old type and new...The Neapolitan Mastiff

When dogs that once crossed miles of open country before running into battle, cannot now run across a football field, yet such dogs often boast Champion designations from kennel clubs, we don't need to wonder if modern day dog breeding has gone awry.

Daniel Blasco's American Bulldogs

The English Bulldog skull, a study in destruction...The English Bulldog

When dogs with grotesque and debilitating physical deformities are the ideal breed standard of their respective breed organizations, with award winning breeders purposefully seeking to maintain and consistently replicate those dramatically clear and objective ailments, we do not need to wonder if both ethos and methodology are not deeply flawed.

The Neapolitan Mastiff and the English Bulldog are two examples of dog show-oriented dog breeding's results. You don't need a "breeder's eye," or a "broader understanding of genetics," to look at the pictures, left and above, and realizing these disfigurements were pursued on purpose, to call the people that do it, quite simply, wrong.

How can we claim to love dogs, but then purposefully replicate dogs that cannot breath or run, and die in half their otherwise natural lifespan?

Blasco Kennels

"In the 1850s, for example, the bulldog looked more like today’s pit bull terrier — sturdy, energetic and athletic with a more elongated muzzle. But by the early 20th century, when dog shows became popular, the bulldog had acquired squat, bandy legs and a large head with a flattened muzzle. This altered figure makes it nearly impossible for them to reproduce without assistance, and the facial changes cause severe breathing problems in a third of all bulldogs. Breeders frequently turn to artificial insemination because the female bulldog’s bone structure cannot support the male’s weight during mating. Most cannot give birth naturally either, because the puppies’ heads are too big for the birth canal."

Claire Maldarelli and Scienceline
Although Purebred Dogs Can Be Best in Show, Are They Worst in Health?
Why diseases plague purebred dogs and how breeders, owners and genetics can help
Scientific American
, February 21, 2014

Blasco Kennels

English Bulldog puppies, with deformed skulls and nasal cavities...The AKC Bulldog Standard
An Example of Systemic Causation

Now consider this quote from the American Kennel Club's (AKC's) Bulldog Breed Standard:

"Muzzle — The face, measured from the front of the cheekbone to the tip of the nose, should be extremely short, the muzzle being very short, broad, turned upward and very deep from the corner of the eye to the corner of the mouth. Nose--The nose should be large, broad and black, its tip set back deeply between the eyes. The distance from bottom of stop, between the eyes, to the tip of nose should be as short as possible..."

There are a possible six points available for that grotesquely handicapped nose described, the highest number of points available within the entire AKC Bulldog Standard, and five points, the second highest number of points available for a single characteristic, encouraging breeders to always capture that handicapped face. The AKC is the number one canine organization worldwide, repudiated to be the noble protectors of their breeds, from unscrupulous breeding practices.

Read what the AKC demands for the Bulldog's gait...

"The style and carriage are peculiar, his gait being a loose-jointed, shuffling, sidewise motion, giving the characteristic "roll." The action must, however, be unrestrained, free and vigorous."

The first sentence describes what in any other four legged mammal would be considered injured or malformed. Are they kidding...? A dog that SHOULD NOT be able to run properly? A dog so meticulously and purposefully deformed as to develop its own particular movement to compensate for its handicaps? The last sentence ironically would seem to demand that the Bulldog also be happy and carefree about being purposefully crippled by his most successful and revered AKC breeders. It is notable that the AKC classifies the Bulldog as a "non-sporting breed," a breed which only 100 years ago was used by butchers and in stockyards to control unruly bulls more than ten times his size.

The AKC quotes are sourced from the AKC published document, "AKC MEET THE BREEDS: Bulldog" as found on the AKC website as recently as 2011. At no place in the document, where the Bulldog breed is fictitiously promoted as being, "one of the finest physical specimens," is it mentioned that this dog has the highest incidence of certain genetic disorders seen anywhere in the canine world. At no time is the dog's tendency to faint on warm days or during normal physical activity mentioned. At no time in the AKC Bulldog document is there any mention made whatsoever of crippling hip and elbow dysplasia that ravages this breed at an inordinate statistical rate, leaving dogs to suffer their entire lives in great physical pain. Certainly, there is no comparative study of what the AKC and similar standards have done to the Bulldog's head and sinus passage over the years - such as you can see in the pictures above for yourself.

Blasco American Bulldog Breeders in Colorado

DNA strandUnderstanding the Terminology: "Hybrid Breeding"

On our own yards, Blasco Family Bulldogs©, we breed Hybrid American Bulldogs, various bandog outcrosses, and sometimes experiment with other designer breedings of larger, typically protection-bred dogs. In the case of our American Bulldogs, it's a typical and well known cross-breeding of different American Bulldog bloodlines between Johnson, Standard, Performance Line and Alabama Bulldogs, /aka/ Ole' Southern Whites or White English Bulldogs. None of this is actually what any geneticist would certainly ever identify as hybridization. We self-identify as "hybrid breeders," only catering to the popular, while technically incorrect, terminolgy. Be advised that most articles, even scientific articles on dog breeding, do likewise, catering to that same technical misuse of terminology. Were we to be technically correct, hybrid breeding is breeding outside of species, such as breeding domestic dogs to wolves, not simply a different breed or bloodline of domestic dog. So while breeding a Collie to a German Shepherd Dog is known as a "hybrid breeding," it is not, but simply an outcross. This common misuse of scientific terminology is a good example of just how ignorant the dog breeding industry has become, and as mentioned, it is seen in many scientific articles also. Breed purists enthusiastically promote repeated in-line breeding practices (the breeding of related dogs) and openly disparage those few breeders who breed outside of a given breed, one breed to another.

In outcross breeding, or what is commonly and incorrectly referred to as "hybrid breeding," we seek to increase the mathematical likelihood of a "bad" allele (undesired genetic trait) becoming more recessive (less likely to display); that is, a gene only being inherited from one parent, and thus not being observed in the resultant animals from the breeding.(4)

Blasco Bulldog Breeders

A Popular Opposing Argument

Probably the most popular and often repeated argument against "hybrid" or outcross breeding goes something like this:

Dogs have been bred into their respective breeds for centuries, each having their own particular characteristics and genetic profiles. When breeding two dogs of different breeds together, the resultant puppies are no more than mutts, their distinctive genetic profiles forever blown apart and their otherwise stable characteristics now completely unpredictable.

The argument often continues with scare tactics discussing the "dangerous" unpredictability of mixed breed dogs. My response: Give me a break! You need only visit your local animal shelter to instantly debunk this COMMERCIAL DOG INDUSTRY MARKETING MYTH. Go to your local dog pound; you will meet and greet dogs of every possible random, and purposeful cross breeding, healthy, stable family pets of beautiful and unique genetic diversity, often exhibiting the added life energy of hybrid vigor, all ready for adoption today.

Canis lupus familiaris, the domestic dog, has been bred in all his many examples sharing the common traits of being domesticated. Dogs, each and every one, have been developed for thousands of years specifically to accompany man, and live fully integrated among his women, children and livestock. Even canis lupus, the original wild wolves that all dogs were developed from, is sometimes kept as a family pet. The idea that breeding any two domestic dogs of different breeds might produce an undomesticated, or "far too dangerous dog" is just silliness, something akin to expecting two humans of different races to produce a Chimpanzee, or a Siamese cat and a Persian cat producing a lion.

Crossbreed dogs, not mutts, just mixed...

This is not to say that dogs do not have different traits, some more aggressive, some less social, some more or less intelligent or easy to train, but all are domesticated, all respond pretty consistently to loving, gentle, and respectful treatment, and all are kept, in their countless types and forms, purebred and mutts alike, safely as family pets. The Russian Ovcharka is arguably one of the most territorial and man-aggressive dogs on earth, and even purebred and outcrossed Ovcharkas can make safe family pets among children. I wouldn't worry too much about the potential "hybrid" savagry of your average Labradoodle, Cockapoo or even Bandog, each a mixed breed dog. All dogs are different with different physical and behavioral traits, surely, but in the end, a dog is still a dog, domesticated for 15,000 years, bred for different traits, but also for the same traits of domestication.

Blasco American Bulldogs

Another Opposing Argument

The much more responsible and less commercial breed purists, those truly just concerned for the good of their respective breeds, will often argue, that proper (and expensive) genetic testing is the best, and only singular avenue to eradicate undesired genetic traits, albeit a little at a time. My response is that genetic testing is only obviously a very good thing, but it is no panecea, and it does not make occasional outcross breeding unecessary in maintaining the genetic health of any given breed. I mean, aside from the fact that you cannot show me, even after many generations of careful, selective and genetically tested breeding, a single example of a purebred dog no longer typically carrying undesirable genetic traits, the argument also does not begin to address the incidence of brand new genetic disorders presenting through continuous purebred breeding practices, especially in-line breeding. Here are some examples...

Neapolitan Mastiff with advanced entropion eyelids...As Neapolitan Mastiffs have been bred for more excessive facial and neck wrinkles, entropion issues, such as "cherry eye" have become common. The condition was once rare only 100 years ago, before the breed standards of this dog's popular professional breeder's registries began placing heavier emphasis on the wrinkles. Now, less wrinkled dogs are less desirable, and even sometimes faulted by the AKC and other breeder's organizations. It has further become a regular practice for breeders of the Neapolitan Mastiff, to seek entropion surgeries for their dogs, and then, knowing the dog has already exhibited the issue, breeding it anyway, and selling the puppies to unsuspecting buyers, unaware that one or both of their new puppy's parents had a serious health issue. In the AKC, the Neapolitan Mastiff having had an entropion surgery is not only allowed in the show ring, but not even required to be sterilized from breeding! Such surgically-altered Neos can even gain Grand Champion status, making them not only "breeding quality dogs," but much sought after breeders, bringing a much higher price for puppies.

The ever shrinking and often deaf and blind Dogo Argentino, a victim of in-line breeding protocols...The Dogo Argentino is a pure white hunting dog ranging between 75 and 100+ pounds, depending upon bloodline and individual specimen. Developed through outcross or "hybrid" breeding, the Dogo Argentino is sometimes one of the healthiest dogs in the world, bringing together the attributes and minimizing the problems observed in its progenitor breeds. Then the Dogo became more widely known and popular. New breed enthusiasts, only reasonably following the practices of different popular purebred dog registries, adopted breeding practices the original creator of the dog, Dr. Antonio Nores Martinez, very likely would not have recommended. Today, the Dogo Argentino as a breed has a serious problem with deafness, occasional blindness and dermatitis, not to mention the dog is shrinking in size and very often has too much color and even a more houndy appearance. So, the newer breeders actually changed the breed standard to allow for their own substandard animals to become the standard! This is an ongoing and widespread problem among countless breeds of dogs, newer enthusiasts literally taking over the registries with substandard animals, and then actually changing the standards to better represent their failed attempts at maintaining the breed as it was originally designed. Regarding the Dogo specifically, very few breeders today can even claim to have the original Martinez Dogo, apart from Las Pampas Kennels, but ever more crude representations are heralded as "Champions," and the unsuspecting buyer hasn't a clue that he's in fact purchasing a lesser dog.

Blasco Bulldogs

The Renaissance Bulldog, a Superior Bulldog to Bulldog Outcross; Hugo of Gargoyle Bulldogs, Denmark Repairing the English Bulldog: The Renaissance Bulldog, a Superior Bulldog to Bulldog Outcross
(photo: Hugo, Gargoyle Bulldogs)

The English Bulldog, when bred pure to another English Bulldog, has a relatively high likelihood of Congenital Heart Disease, Brachycephalic Upper-Airway Syndrome, and a host of other serious problems. BUT if an English Bulldog is bred to an American Bulldog, resulting in a new, emerging breed known as a Renaissance Bulldog, the odds of the puppies having Congenital Heart Disease or Brachycephalic Upper-Airway Syndrome is dramatically lowered, as are the likelihood of most other known English Bulldog diseases. Why? Because the American Bulldog has a much lower likelihood of these diseases than the English Bulldog; thus, when bred, the puppies have lower mathematical odds of inheriting such diseases. This practice, coupled with genetic testing, could conceivably almost entirely eliminate such diseases from a particular bloodline. We know it in this day and age, and yet, few breeders make the effort, preferring instead to breed "healthy," versions of the English Bulldog, as if the supposed "healthy dog" is not nonetheless likely to carry the trait recessively and pass it on to its pups. Further, such crossbred dogs typically exhibit hybrid vigor or heterosis, the dramatically more healthful and vigorous quality of crossbred animals, obtained exclusively by the crossing of dogs of two different breeds.

Renaissance Bulldogs (also sometimes spelled Renascence Bulldogges), though very rare, are now being developed by conscienteous breeders who love the English Bulldog and wish to address its many problems. Anyone also loving the English Bulldog, but having previously been concerned about the associated health costs, should give this dog serious consideration. The Renaissance Bulldog, especially if finding a true, first generation, F1 hybrid, is a dramatically healthier, more robust and capable dog than the English Bulldog, yet still retains much of the English Bulldog's characteristic look.

Renaissance Bulldogs are only free breeders, which is by itself a big deal over its typically English Bulldog father, who was very likely "birthed" from his mother through surgical intervention. Add to that 20 to 30 pounds or more, and a dramatically reduced risk of genetic diseases, plus the fact that they also tend to be clear breathers (with a nasal cavity that no longer opens directly onto their brains), and what you have is yet another example of highly successful "hybrid breeding." The first example for many of us is that mutt we had as kids, who never ran out of energy, was never sick, and whom we remember being so special. The mutt that many of us remember was a dog likely exhibiting heterosis, the hybrid vigor typified by mixed-breed dogs.

Pictured, Gargoyle Bulldogs' Renaissance Bulldog, Hugo, Denmark. Gorgeous boy, isn't he?

Blasco Bulldogs

Degenerative Myelopathy and Bilateral Hip Dysplasia in purebred dogs...More On the Genetic Disorders of Purebred Dogs

As mentioned previously, breed purists do not have an argument that accounts for the observance of new genetic disorders in their purebred dogs not being caused by their own in-line breeding practices. This German Shepherd Dog's purebred pedigree didn't help it escape Degenerative Myelopathy (DM), a new genetic disorder isolated in larger breed, primarily purebred dogs. Below, the x-ray of a dog with Bilateral Hip Dysplasia, a disorder which, regardless of many years of genetic testing, remains a typical trait across a diversity of breeds, parents without the disease still often producing puppies that develop it anyway.

The incidence of both these genetic diseases is significantly reduced through outcross breeding; that is, breeding to other similar, but distinct breeds and/or bloodlines to their own breed.

A German Shepherd Dog, for instance, can be crossed to a diversity of other breeds, dramatically increasing its health, its resultant lifespan, and preserving or even enhancing its carefully developed working traits, while maintaining nearly its same visual appearance.

German Shepherd Dogs have been getting smaller and less robust a decade at a time, and any adult aged person remembering German Shepherds as a child knows it. Today in Germany, 120+ pound German Shepherd Dogs are not uncommon. Today in the United States, they have become a curious anomaly, and are even sometimes faulted for their larger-than-average size. This alone should cause a breeder to ponder outcross breeding, not even considering known and arguably increasing health issues. I mean, will you sell dogs to police forces and the military when they commonly grow to only 60-pounds? 50-pounds...? The healthier Belgians are already beginning to take the German Shepherd Dog's traditional place, now that the smaller size of the Belgian Malinois is no longer a competetive issue between the two. What a shame it is, to reduce the once robust and capable, centuries old police dog to a medium sized lap dog of poor health!

Blasco

Bandogge and English Mastiff; which is better...?The Proof is in the Pudding
English Mastiff Comparisons

The right photo, a modern English Mastiff designated by its breed organization as a "Champion"; fat, unbalanced, and with straight hocks on legs barely thick enough to carry his slovenly form across a living room. Can you imagine him jumping a cattle fence to protect a herd or a flock from advancing predators? Will he ever leap happily into the air, catching a frisbee, as he plays with the kids for hours on end out in the yard? Would he ever again be capable of rushing headlong into pitched battle? Seems unlikely. The left photo, a Bandogge, a predictably bred, mixed breed dog, pairing the Mastiff's genetics with those of a more athletic breed, such as a Pitbull, Staffordshire Terrier, Fox Hound, Labrador, American Bulldog, or other such agile breed. In fact, the Dogue de Bordeaux, Cane Corso, Presa Canario, and Bullmastiff are all breeds previously deveoped as Bandogs. Go ahead and pick which one you like best, the "Champion" purebred dog, or his much maligned bastard son? Just one thing: We're headed out the door to chase a black bear off your property this afternoon, so choose wisely.

The former English Mastiff...The Former English Mastiff

Have you seen many of these around lately, looking like that? Notice: Perfectly balanced structure. If placed on a folcrum, it would be dead center on his solar plexus, even weight distribution front to back; smooth descent of shoulders and chest into thick legs, well able to carry him for many hours of come-what-may; sharp angulation of hocks and hips: The smooth, driving lines of a running dog; the wrinkles that protect bone and muscle from bites or a boar's tusk are not exaggerated, and he probably does not have a sloppy, wet mouth. Finally, note the alert, upward held head and neck, a high energy dog who keeps watch, not as the lazy English Mastiff above. Photography was first popularized in the 1840s. That means this dog is the breed predecessor of the English Mastiff above, by far less than 200 years. So, in your own opinion, did modern breeding practices improve or harm the breed?

Blasco Family Bulldogs

Bella with American Bulldog puppies...Summary: Just a Bit More Science Please...
The Fraudulent Myth that Purebred Dogs Are Better Cannot Withstand Scrutiny

Swedish scientists confirm that mixed breed dogs are less likely to contract many diseases than the average purebred dog which are the focus of show breeding; i.e., breeding for precise visual conformation rather than the general working ability a given breed was originally created for — and further, that mixed breed dogs were consistently in the lowest risk category of mortality (death) rates.(6)

In a landmark North American study, breed longevity (length of life) of domesticated dogs was analyzed using mortality data from 23,535 pet dogs. The data came from North American veterinary teaching hospitals. The median age at death was shown to be dramatically higher (longer lives) for mixed breed dogs over pure bred dogs of the same relative types and weights. The median age at death was 8.5 years for all mixed breed dogs considered collectively, and 6.7 years for all purebred dogs considered collectivey. (7) Notably, the average lifespan of ALL DOGS worldwide with North American dogs also averaged in is 12.8 years. In other words, aside from the fact that mixed breed dogs tend to live quite a bit longer than purebred dogs, it is a demostrated fact that North American dog breeders tend to breed dogs that die far earlier than the worldwide average.(8) Throughout much of the world outside North America, outcross breeding is still a common practice of purebred dog breeders. In North America, it is very rare... and dogs die quite a bit sooner.

A 2003 Denmark study also confirmed the very same among dogs on the other side of the world, a higher average longevity of mixed-breed dogs.(9)

Mixed-breeds on average are both healthier and longer-lived than their purebred cousins. This is because, "current accepted breeding practices within the pedigreed community results in a reduction in genetic diversity, more often resulting in physical characteristics that lead to health issues." (10) (11)

Still further studies demonstrate that cross-bred dogs have better reproductive traits. Scott and Fuller discovered that cross-bred dogs were better mothers compared to purebred mothers, 1) producing more milk and 2) giving better care to their puppies. These advantages led to a decreased mortality in the offspring of cross-bred dogs.(12)

Now with all that said, it is clear to me as a dog breeding enthusiast that many breed associations are purely political in nature. They claim to protect their breeds, yet their breeds, as demonstrated, cannot perform as they were designed to perform, show a demonstratably higher incidence of illness and suseptability to illness, die earlier, and the reverse of that coin, can demonstrably be improved upon through outcross breeding.

That's the science, and that science does not support the continuous in-line breeding of cousins to cousins to cousins to achieve indentical dogs. Yes, purebred dogs are, on the whole, a more predictable, consistent consumer product — predictable and consistent not only in their visual appearance, but in their far higher likelihood to be diseased, die early, and not perform any particular function very well.

Pictured, our own Blasco's Kay Bella of A&B with Hybrid American Bulldog puppies.

 

Blasco Family Bulldogs

 

Bibliography

(1) Some Practical Solutions to Welfare Problems in Pedigree Dog Breeding by P.D. McGreevy & W.F. Nicholas, Animal Welfare, 1999, Vol 8, 329-331

(2) The Modern Kennel Conundrum by Jon Mooallem, New York Times 02/04/2007

(3) If Dogs Could Talk by Csányi, Vilmos, (First American Edition, translated by Richard E. Quandt ed.), New York: North Point Press, 2005, pp. 285–286, ISBN 978-0865476868

(4) Unraveling the Genetic Basis of Hybrid Vigor, by James A. Birchler, Hong Yao, and Sivanandan Chudalayandi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U S A., 2006 August 29; 103(35): 12957–12958, Published online 2006 August 22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1559732/

(5) R. Beythien, Tierarten- und Hunderassenverteilung, Erkrankungshäufigkeit und prophylaktische Maßnahmen bei den häufigsten Hunderassen am Beispiel einer Tierarztpraxis in Bielefeld in den Jahren 1983-1985 und 1990-1992, 1998, Diss., Tierärztl. Hochschule Hannover

(6) Gender, age, breed and distribution of morbidity and mortality in insured dogs in Sweden during 1995 and 1996 by A. Egenvall, B.N. Bonnett, P. Olson, Å. Hedhammar, The Veterinary Record, 29/4/2000, p. 519-57

(7) Comparative Longevity of Pet Dogs and Humans: Implications for Gerontology Research by G.J. Patronek, D.J. Walters, L.T. Glickman, J. Geront., BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 1997, Vol 52A,No.3, B171-B178 quote (p. B173)

(8) Pet Tips, Tip 46 – Life expectancy in dogs – How long will my dog live? (http://www.pets.ca/dogs/tips/tip-46-life-expectancy-in-dogs-how-long-will-my-dog-live/)

(9) Mortality of purebred and mixed-breed dogs in Denmark by H.F. Proschofsky et al., Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 2003, 58, 53-74 "Higher average longevity of mixed-breed dogs (grouped together). Age at death mixed-breeds Q1 8, Q2 11, Q3 13, purebreds 6, 10, 12"

(10) http://vein.library.usyd.edu.au/links/Mcgreevy.pdf

(11) Should Crufts Be Banned?, The Telegraph, September 15, 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/petshealth/3347782/Should-Crufts-be-banned.html

(12) Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog by John Paul Scott, John L. Fuller

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Breeding dogs from a diversity of registered bloodlines -
It's better for the dogs - it's better for the breed...

The United Kennel Club UKCThe National Kennel Club NKCThe American Kennel Club AKCFederation Cynologique Internationale FCI

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